The activities of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities are concentrated mainly on the study and conservation of the works and of their archaeological sites of competence.

The greater part of the work consists of the scientific direction of restoration and of museum exhibits. These tasks involve the study of historical and bibliographical documentation, necessary and preliminary to scientific research. Likewise, updating work is essential for studies, for teaching, and for new technologies that can enable the renewal and enhancement of the exhibition sectors, often with new installations and equipment. These activities are accompanied by the dutiful scientific disclosure of the results achieved in the various research areas, with participation in seminars and conferences, and through the organization of conferences and study days at the Vatican Museums. Equally important is the organization of exhibitions and the creation of new teaching aids, permitting dialogue with an audience with the most diverse needs.

The nature of the sculptural collections – which in terms of quality and quantity are among the most relevant for classical antiquities – involves frequent relations with the scientific community. One of the main activities is indeed the collection and processing of data, useful for completing research by other scholars; within this free and multi-faceted dialogue, unexpected research ideas emerge. A tradition of shared studies is still maintained with various cultural institutes, also made concrete in the production of publishing series with the involvement of authoritative experts in specific sectors of the subject.

In its ordinary activity, the care of the collections is carried out through study and cataloguing, and the updating of dossiers on the works, which converge first in the inventory notes and then in the online catalogue. In the archaeological areas it is instead necessary to perform constant checks on the structures and the artefacts, planning maintenance and restoration, also with the aim of enhancing visitor itineraries.