The face of the Dictator shows characteristic features of determination which are based on idealised traits. This individuality was probably inspired by portrait busts of Hellenistic rulers and is quite striking in images that reproduce the ultimate physiognomy of Caius Julius Caesar. This portrait bust was probably made after the Ides of March of 44 B.C., sometime between 30-20 B.C. Caesar (100-44 B.C.) was a politician, soldier and writer who profoundly changed the republican state of Rome, preparing the way for his adopted son, Octavian, to fully revolutionise the political system and set up the Empire.
This head of Caesar was sold to the Vatican Museums by the sculptor Vincenzo Pacetti in 1804; restored in 1823, the head was for many years displayed in the Chiaramonti Museum.